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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 35  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 332-340

Pupil light reflex in Parkinson's disease patients with and without freezing of gait symptoms

1 Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada<, Canada
3 Sun Life Financial Movement Disorders Research and Rehabilitation Center, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, Canada

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mosaad Alhassan
Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1319-4534.347306

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PURPOSE: Freezing of gait (FOG) is considered as a motor disorder that affects some Parkinson's disease (PD) patients; however, sensory systems may also be involved in FOG. The pupil light reflex (PLR) is a reliable measure of the autonomic nervous system. Different dilation and constriction pupil parameters may be used to investigate the integrity of the autonomic nervous system in PD patients with and without FOG symptoms. This study aimed to look at the integrity of autonomic nervous system and to investigate the nonmotor functions mediated by the cholinergic system in Parkinson's patients with and without FOG symptoms. METHODS: Constriction and dilation pupil light reflexes were measured by using a handheld pupillometer. Twenty-two patients with FOG symptoms, 25 patients without FOG symptoms, and 25 aged-matched healthy controls participated in this study. RESULTS: The results showed that most of the constriction parameters and dilation latency of both patient groups differed significantly from healthy controls. FOG patients showed larger pupil size under light condition and larger deficits in constriction latency than nonFOG patients. Both the groups of PD patients had longer dilation latencies than healthy controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the cholinergic autonomic nervous system is affected in PD patients more than the adrenergic system. FOG patients had larger impairments in nondopaminergic mediated functions such as pupil light reflexes, which suggests that FOG patients have greater impairment in functions that involve cholinergic neurotransmitters.

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